3 edition of Optical properties of CO ice and CO snow in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared found in the catalog.
Optical properties of CO ice and CO snow in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared
by National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Technical Information Service, distributor in [Washington, DC, Springfield, Va
Written in English
|Statement||by Stephen Warren.|
|Series||NASA contractor report -- NASA CR-194110.|
|Contributions||United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration.|
|The Physical Object|
(30 authors) () Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between and 1 kilometer, Science, , pp. – ADS CrossRef Google Scholar Bourdelles, B. and Fily, M. () Snow grain size determination from Landsat imagery over Terre-Adelie, Antarctica, Annals of Glaciology, . The normal-incidence spectral reflectance of ice at −7° C has been measured in the range – cm−1. A Kramers–Kronig phase-shift analysis of the measured spectral reflectance has been employed to provide values of the real and imaginary parts of the refractive index. The resulting values of these optical constants are suitable for use in Mie-theory computations of scattering by.
Then, a multi-step look-up table process is employed to retrieve k λ and single scattering optical properties by matching measured to modeled reflectance across the shortwave and near infrared. The real part of the complex refractive index, n, for dust aerosols ranges between and and a sensitivity analysis shows the method is. While most experiments on water or ice utilize rather complex, elaborate, and expensive apparatus in order to obtain reliable optical data, here we present a simple and affordable setup that enables us to perform near-infrared measurements on water, ice, and snow on top of rough diffuse reflecting surfaces such as concrete, stone, pavement, or asphalt.
and optical properties. For example, Type I silica glasses tend to contain metallic impurities [3,4]. On the other hand, Types III and IV are much purer than Type I and feature greater ultraviolet (UV) transmis-sion [3,4]. However, Type III silica glasses have, in general, higher water content, and infrared . Since infrared light is comprised of longer wavelengths than visible light, the two regions behave differently when propagating through the same optical medium. Some materials can be used for either IR or visible applications, most notably fused silica, BK7 and sapphire ; however, the performance of an optical system can be optimized by using.
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Get this from a library. Optical properties of CO₂ ice and CO₂ snow in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared: final report on NASA grant NAGW [Stephen G Warren; United States.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration.]. Absorption of visible and near-ultraviolet radiation by ice is so weak that absorption of sunlight at these wavelengths in natural snow is dominated by trace amounts of light-absorbing impurities such as dust and soot.
In the thermal infrared, ice is moderately absorptive, so snow is nearly a blackbody, with emissivity 98–99%.Cited by: The optical properties of ice and snow are important for the energy budgets of solar and infrared radiation, and therefore the climate, over large parts of the Earth's surface.
The optical properties are also used to explain and predict photochemistry in snow, and they are needed for designing remote-sensing instruments on satellites and for Cited by: of visible and near-ultraviolet radiation by ice is so weak that absorption of sunlight at these wavelengths in natural snow is dominated by trace amounts of light-absorbing impurities such as dust and soot.
In the thermal infrared, ice is moderately absorptive, so snow is nearly a blackbody, with emissivity 98–99%. The radiative properties of snow depend strongly on wavelength because the absorption coefficient of ice varies by eight orders of magnitude from the ultraviolet to the infrared.
The reflectance, transmittance, absorptance, and emissivity of snow are determined by the distances that photons travel through ice between air-ice interfaces (i.e., between opportunities for scattering).Author: S.
Warren. Fily, M., Leroux, C, Lenoble, J. and Sergent, C. () Terrestrial snow and ice studies from remote sensing in the solar spectrum and the thermal infrared. This book. Google Scholar. Improved ice particle optical property simulations in the ultraviolet to far-infrared regime.
Author The optical properties of ice particles are fundamental to crystal habit model is that it gives rise to consistent optical thickness retrievals using either an algorithm based on visible and near-infrared bands or an. The optical properties of sea ice are important in the understanding of sea ice thermodynamics, growth and decay processes, polar climates, and remote sensing.
The optical properties of ice have been fairly well described, but most studies have focused on wavelengths longer than nm, and on Arctic sea ice. With increased interest in the effects of changing ultraviolet light levels from. Optical properties of a material influence the way optical radiation reacts when hitting its surface.
Each material has its own specific spectral signature due to the degree of reflection, absorption and transmission at different wavelengths of the received radiation. Ice and snow generally show a high degree of reflection at visible wavelengths (VIS; ca 0,4 – 0,75 µm), lower reflection in the NIR.
A compilation of the optical constants of ice Ih is made for temperatures within 60 K of the melting point. The imaginary part mim of the complex index of refraction m is obtained from measurements of spectral absorption coefficient; the real part mre is computed to be consistent with mim by use of known dispersion relations.
The compilation of mim requires subjective interpolation in the near. The optical constants are needed for understanding radiative properties of ice and ice‐containing media such as snow and clouds, with applications to energy budgets and remote sensing.
The compilation is still in use more than 20 years later, but in the meantime more accurate measurements have been made in many parts of the spectrum. Imaginary part of the complex index of refraction of ice in the near infrared, – m m; comparison of the new compilation to that of W arren .
D W ARREN AND BRANDT: OPTICAL. The current wealth of spaceborne passive and active measurements from ultraviolet to the infrared wavelengths provides an unprecedented opportunity to construct ice cloud bulk optical property.
A comparison is made with observations for conditions where the ice can be approximated by a single homogeneous layer, and theoretical and observational results are found to be in agreement. Of particular significance is that the wavelength dependence for both albedos and extinction coefficients appears to.
OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF ICES the available data on ices were scattered in the literature and rather hetero geneous. However, an increasing number of spectra covering wide spectral ranges and physico-chemical parameters have now begun to appear. Strictly speaking, the word ice describes the solid state of water.
How. optical constants are needed for understanding radiative properties of ice and ice-containing media such as snow and clouds, with applications to energy budgets and remote sensing.
The compilation is still in use more than 20 years later, but in the meantime more accurate measure-ments have been made in many parts of the spectrum.
Description of data set. This compilation of the optical constants of ice Ih is an update to the review by Warren ().Changes to the imaginary part m im of the complex index of refraction m are made in the following wavelength regions to incorporate more-accurate measurements made since References are given in Warren & Brandt ().
Optical thickness from and μm vs. VISST Retrievals" Opaque Ice Cloud Optical Thickness from IR Retrieval - Blackbody Limitation" VISST - the Visible Infrared Solar-infrared Split Window Technique (Minnis et al.,).
!and. Infrared and near-infrared radiations are absorbed in the top centimeter, but blue and green visible radiation can penetrate to more than m if the water is especially clear.
The depth to which visible radiation penetrates the ocean depends on the amount and optical properties of suspended organic matter in the water, which vary greatly with. areas and problems of interest in sea ice optical properties are discussed.
Since the presence of a snow cover can greatly impact light reflection and transmission through sea ice, some mention is made of the optical properties of snow. An excel-lent review of the optical properties of snow is provided by Warren ().
The optical proper. The refractive index of water at 20 °C for visible light is The refractive index of normal ice is (from List of refractive indices).In general, an index of refraction is a complex number with real and imaginary parts, where the latter indicates the strength of absorption loss at a particular wavelength.
In the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum, the imaginary part of the.Both sea ice and snow are strongly multiple scattering media with single scattering albedos well above through the visible and into the near infrared.
Parameter studies indicate that the optical properties of sea ice are controlled by the density of brine and vapor inclusions which in general undergo substantial seasonal changes.the ultraviolet through the microwave region.
Nonlinear tion of altitude. CO, CH4, N2, and 02 are considered uniformly mixed, with mixing ratios of, xand x ppmv, respectively. OPTICAL AND INFRARED PROPERTIES OF THE ATMOSPHERE too- ure a and b are now known to be too high.